CMAT – Logical Reasoning
In logic, three kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished: deduction, induction and abduction. Given a precondition, a conclusion, and a rule that the precondition implies the conclusion, they can be explained in the following way:
- Deduction means determining the conclusion. It is using the rule and its precondition to make a conclusion. Example: “When it rains, the grass gets wet. It rained today. Therefore, the grass is wet.” Mathematicians are commonly associated with this style of reasoning.
- Induction means determining the rule. It is learning the rule after numerous examples of the conclusion following the precondition. Example: “The grass has been wet every time it has rained. Therefore, if it rains tomorrow, the grass will get wet.” Scientist are commonly associated with this style of reasoning.
- Abduction means determining the precondition. It is using the conclusion and the rule to support that the precondition could explain the conclusion. Example: “When it rains, the grass gets wet. The grass is wet, therefore, it may have rained.” Diagnosticians and detectives are commonly associated with this style of reasoning.
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